Intellectual disability (ID), also known as general learning disability, and mental retardation, is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. It is defined by an IQ score under 70 in addition to deficits in two or more adaptive behaviours that affect every day, general living. The disability varies from mild to profound.
People characterized by Intellectual disability can learn no more than two skills at a time. Their mental processing is slow compared to an average individual. They have problems learning, observing, concentrating, solving problems and making decisions. They also have problems in adaptive behaviours. Adaptive behaviours comprises of general day to day life activities, namely communication, social behaviour and the list goes on. Intellectual disability barely affects a percent of the population, out of which 85% are mildly affected. Many times, Intellectual Disability is mistaken as Learning Disability, too. It takes an expert and professional assessment to distinguish and identify the actual problem.
Intellectual disability is caused due to genetic problems, problems during pregnancy or child birth.
And in more than most cases, the problem is unknown. The symptoms of Intellectual Disability start showing from or at a very tender age.
The symptoms include:
- · Delay or failure in walking, talking, rolling and crawling.
- · Difficulty in remembering things.
- · Inability or difficulty in solving problems.
- · Behavioural or Social Problems.
- · Difficulty in understanding and following rules.
There is no cure for Intellectual Disability. But there are options to considerably reduce the effects.
For toddlers, an early intervention is designed. It’s based on the report created by the parents.
The program may include speech, occupational, physical therapy, family counselling and training with special devices and nutritional services. For pre-schoolers, there are in house help services available according to the needs of the child.
The other solutions include:
Observation of the child and thorough study on the subject.
Encouraging the child to be independent and let them take part in as many outdoor activities, group activities. Pointing out the positives and praising them for the efforts that they take.
And keeping in constant touch with the teachers.
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